If you’re on the cusp of buying a home, one of the first and most significant considerations you’ll encounter is the down payment. This initial investment can influence not just your ability to purchase a home, but also the terms of your mortgage and your financial flexibility in the years to come. Understanding the ins and outs of down payments is more than a financial formality; it’s a critical step in making one of life’s biggest decisions.
In this guide, we explore the essential aspects of making a down payment on a house. From traditional norms to modern options, you’ll learn about the factors influencing down payment requirements and their implications. This article is designed to assist both first-time buyers and experienced investors in understanding the impact of various down payment sizes on the home buying process and their financial future.
The journey to homeownership is filled with important decisions. We aim to provide you with the insights needed to make informed choices, aligning your dream of owning a home with your financial objectives. Let’s discuss the importance of down payments and how they play a pivotal role in your home buying adventure.
What is a down payment on a house?
A mortgage is a loan used to purchase a house. But there are very few mortgages available that will cover the total cost of the home.
Instead, most mortgage lenders require that you pay a percentage of the home’s purchase price and finance the rest with a loan. The amount you pay upfront is called a down payment.
This provides the lender with the assurance that you are vested in the property. Otherwise, you may be more likely to default on the mortgage because you didn’t spend any of your own money on the house. Most people won’t miss their monthly mortgage payment and end up in foreclosure. However, lenders typically require it across the board.
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20% Down Payment
Traditionally, banks required individuals to have a 20% down payment on a house to qualify for a loan. But it wound up making homeownership extremely exclusionary.
After all, that amounts to $40,000 on a $200,000, and most people don’t have that kind of money lying around. So while 20% remains the standard down payment preferred by most lenders, it’s no longer the norm.
In fact, data shows that the average down payment amount is shrinking due to young first-time home buyers. But there are some benefits to saving up a larger down payment of 20% before buying a home, and they can add up to some pretty significant savings over time.
Even beyond financial reasons, putting in an offer letter with a 20% down payment with a conventional loan can make you a more attractive buyer when you’re competing for a specific house.
Why? Because it will give you a lower loan-to-value ratio (LTV.) Your loan looks less likely to fall through because you have a more substantial cash flow and assets than someone with a low down payment. All other things equal, a seller will probably select your offer in a competitive market.
Avoid Paying Private Mortgage Insurance
Another major perk of a large down payment? You avoid paying private mortgage insurance (PMI). Any mortgage for a home you own with less than 20% equity is subject to additional insurance to protect the bank.
The amount depends on your loan type, but it’s usually an annual amount divided out as part of your monthly payments. To get rid of the mortgage insurance, you typically have to refinance the loan, which can be costly.
You also get a better interest rate with a higher down payment. On top of that, having a smaller loan amount lowers your monthly mortgage payment, giving you more money left in your pocket each month.
Low Down Payment Mortgage Options
Most lenders these days don’t expect you to have a full 20% down payment saved up. How much down payment you’ll need for a house depends on the type of loan you choose. The exact amount you’ll need varies based on several factors.
Here’s a rundown of the most common types of mortgages and the down payment requirements for each one. Start here to begin your selection process. It’s also wise to ask potential lenders to provide different scenarios for each loan type you qualify for.
Even if you don’t have a 20% down payment, you can qualify for a conventional loan. The minimum down payment is 3%, although you can also do any amount higher than that.
On a $200,000 home, you would pay $6,000 with the minimum down payment. Until a few years ago, at least a 5% down payment was required.
However, Fannie Mae studies indicated that saving up that much money was creating an obstacle to homeownership for many creditworthy individuals. So they created a 97% loan-to-value option that lenders can offer to mortgage applicants.
2% may not seem like a huge difference, but it adds up quickly when dealing with such large dollar amounts. In the scenario above, a 5% down payment on the same house would require a $10,000 down payment — $4,000 more than the 3% option.
Conventional Mortgage Lender Requirements
To qualify for a conventional mortgage, you’ll need to meet certain lender requirements, which can be strict compared to other loan types. For example, credit score requirements generally start around 620, although some lenders may accept as low as 580.
You’ll receive a higher interest rate with both a lower credit score and a small down payment, another factor in determining how much to save for your home. Of course, as with any down payment under 20%, you will have to pay mortgage insurance.
The exact rate can vary, but here’s an example of how much it could cost you. If your loan amount is $194,000 (after your 3% down payment) and your annual mortgage insurance rate is 0.5%, you’d have to pay $970 each year. Split up over 12 monthly mortgage payments, your PMI would add just over $80 to your bill.
An FHA loan is another option for a loan with a low down payment. FHA loans are backed by the Federal Housing Administration, and insured by the federal government. They allow you to qualify for a mortgage without as many restrictions as conventional loans.
With an FHA loan, you only need a 3.5% down payment. So on that same $200,000 house, you’d only need to supply $7,000 in upfront cash.
FHA Loan Lender Requirements
You also get to take advantage of lower credit score requirements, with the minimum at only 580. Plus, you can qualify with a higher debt-to-income ratio. Conventional lenders only allow 43% of your monthly income to go towards debt payments, including your mortgage.
On the other hand, an FHA lender might let that number creep up between 45% and 50%. So, this is another example of a couple of percentage points making a difference in how much home you can afford.
Mortgage Rates and Private Mortgage Insurance
Again, lower mortgage application standards, including a smaller down payment, typically result in higher costs elsewhere. As a result, you’re likely to see higher interest rates and a higher PMI. With an FHA loan, you’ll have to pay that PMI in two different ways.
The first is a one-time payment at closing. This amounts to 1.75% of your loan amount. Again, say that you’re taking out a $190,000 loan; part of your closing costs would include a $3,325 PMI payment. On top of that, you’ll pay about 0.85% annually.
In this example, that amounts to $1,615, adding $134 to your monthly mortgage payment. So making a low down payment can cost you when it comes to paying PMI each month! Still, it may be a better option, especially if you can quickly reach a 20% loan-to-value and refinance the home loan in a few years.
If you’re a military veteran or active military member, you can qualify for a loan backed by the VA. The great thing about this type of loan is that it doesn’t require any down payment at all.
It also has lower credit score requirements, and no mortgage insurance is required. You do, however, have to pay a one-time funding fee. It can either be paid at closing or rolled into your mortgage amount.
The fee amount varies depending on a few different factors, including your down payment amount, your type of service, and whether you’ve used a VA loan in the past. But if you are regular military personnel and a first-time user of the VA loan with a zero dollar down payment, your funding fee will total 2.15% of the loan amount.
For the sake of comparison, let’s look at the $190,000 loan again. In this scenario, your funding fee comes to $4,085. Since it’s just a one-time fee, the impact on your monthly payment would be fairly minimal since it’s spread out over 30 years.
A USDA loan is backed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and promotes homeownership in rural areas. But you don’t have to buy a farm to qualify for this loan type. In fact, many peripheral suburban areas are included.
The great thing is that there is no down payment required for a USDA loan. However, you must meet certain income requirements and may only earn a certain amount each year, which varies depending on where you live.
Like VA loans, USDA loans don’t require PMI, but you have to pay an upfront premium if your down payment is less than 20%. The premium amount is 2% of your loan amount. That would be $3,800 on a $190,000 loan.
Again, you can either pay it up front as part of your closing costs or roll it into your mortgage amount. Check out the eligibility map to see if any properties near you qualify for a USDA loan.
Our final low down payment loan is the HomeReady loan. This loan helps potential homeowners in low-income areas to get the financing they need for a mortgage.
The required down payment on a house is just 3%, and your debt-to-income ratio can be as high as 50%. There’s no income limit, but the property does have to be located in a low-income census tract.
You also have to complete an online education program about homeownership. You will need to pay mortgage insurance with the minimum down payment. However, the program claims to offer lower premiums compared to other loans.
If you find a home you love in an approved area, it’s definitely worth comparing to other available options.
See also: How to Buy a House With No Down Payment
What other costs are associated with buying a home?
We’ve talked a lot about private mortgage insurance adding to the total cost of your loan. But it’s also important to remember that there are fees and expenses to consider.
Some you’ll have to pay upfront, while others are paid over the course of the loan. But, first, remember that your monthly payment includes not only principal and interest but also taxes and insurance.
Cumulatively, this is called PITI (principal, interest, taxes, and insurance), and those add-ons are often overlooked when using a mortgage calculator. City or county taxes are owed every year, but most lenders charge you monthly and then make the payment on your behalf.
Homeowners insurance is also required for a loan and can easily tack on an extra $300 to $1,000 per year, depending on the value of your home.
You should also consider closing costs. Many buyers may try to negotiate that the seller covers these costs, but this tactic isn’t always successful, particularly in competitive real estate markets.
Closing costs cover various services and fees and usually amount to 3-5% of the home’s purchase price. So on that $200,000 home, you could end up paying between $6,000 and $10,000 in closing costs.
If you don’t have the cash up front, you can typically roll them into the loan, but you’ll end up with higher monthly payments. Don’t be afraid of closing costs or any other fees associated with a mortgage, especially if you don’t have much saved for a down payment.
Understanding down payments is crucial in your home-buying journey. The ideal down payment for your new home hinges on your financial circumstances and the types of loans you’re considering. While a larger down payment can reduce long-term costs through lower interest rates and mortgage insurance, balancing this with your available savings and overall budget is key.
Remember to account for additional expenses like closing fees, taxes, and insurance. These play a significant role in the overall cost of purchasing a home. Utilizing tools like mortgage calculators can help you grasp the implications of different down payment amounts.
In the end, whether you choose a minimal down payment or aim for 20%, the most vital aspect is making an informed decision that suits your financial situation and long-term housing plans. Stay informed, seek guidance when needed, and confidently take this important step towards homeownership.
Frequently Asked Questions
What is the ideal credit score to qualify for a mortgage with a low down payment?
While the minimum credit score required for a mortgage can vary depending on the lender and the type of loan, generally, a score of 580 or higher is needed to qualify for more favorable low down payment options like FHA loans. Higher scores can secure better interest rates and terms.
How can I improve my credit score before applying for a mortgage?
Improving your credit score involves several steps: pay your bills on time, reduce your debt-to-income ratio, avoid opening new credit accounts before applying for a mortgage, and check your credit report for errors. Consistently managing these areas can gradually improve your score.
Are there any down payment assistance programs available?
Yes, there are various down payment assistance programs available, often based on location, income level, or first-time homebuyer status. These programs can offer grants, low-interest loans, and other forms of assistance. It’s advisable to research local and state programs for eligibility.
Can gift funds be used for a down payment?
Yes, many loan types allow the use of gift funds for down payments. However, there are specific rules regarding the source of these funds and documentation required. It’s important to discuss this with your lender to ensure compliance with their guidelines.
What is the difference between pre-qualification and pre-approval for a mortgage?
Pre-qualification is an initial step where a lender gives you an estimate of how much you might be able to borrow based on basic financial information you provide. Pre-approval is more comprehensive, involving a detailed review of your finances and a more concrete offer of loan amount and terms.
How long does the mortgage application process typically take?
The duration of the mortgage application process varies, but generally takes between 30 to 45 days from application to closing. This timeline can be influenced by the complexity of your financial situation, the type of loan, and the efficiency of your lender.
What happens if I make a down payment of less than 20%?
If you make a down payment of less than 20%, you’ll likely need to pay for Private Mortgage Insurance (PMI), which protects the lender in case of default. PMI is typically required until you have at least 20% equity in your home.
Can I withdraw from my retirement account for a down payment without penalty?
In some cases, you can withdraw funds from certain retirement accounts, like an IRA, for a down payment without incurring early withdrawal penalties, especially if you’re a first-time homebuyer. However, there are limits and tax implications to consider.
What are the risks of putting down a smaller down payment?
A smaller down payment on a house can mean larger monthly mortgage payments, higher interest rates, and the necessity to pay PMI. It may also affect your competitiveness as a buyer in a strong market.
How can I estimate my monthly mortgage payment?
Your monthly mortgage payment can be estimated using online mortgage calculators. These calculators take into account the loan amount, down payment, interest rate, and loan term, giving you a rough idea of what to expect.